After the moment neighboring lands joined Navahrudak under the rule of Mindoŭh, the new state gradually included other ancient Belarusian principalities. All of them were interested in the establishment of the government, which meant reliable protection from enemies as well as the ability to be engaged in agriculture, trade and crafts.
Temporary decline of the principality had been overcome during the reign of Vicień.
During the reign of Hiedymin almost all Belarusian principalities joined the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The first elements of Western culture were borrowed at the same time.
During the reign of Alhierd the total territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was doubled and Belarusian principalities received the central place in the state. The Belarusian language was the official one.
The baptism of Lithuania and the battle of Grunwald (1410), which put an end to the expansion of the Teutonic Knights, are considered to be the main events of Jagiello reign.
During the reign of Vitaŭt the Grand Duchy of Lithuania reached the greatest power and maximum size, from Pskov to the Black Sea and from Oka and Kursk to Galicia. The Duchy became the most powerful state in Central and Eastern Europe.
At that time Belarus was called “the Land of castles” by travelers from Western Europe. During the period great castles were built in Navahrudak, Kreva, Lida, Viciebsk, Medininkai, Trakai.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania became an example of the state where people of different nations and religions happily coexisted. The period of XVI—the beginning of XVII is called “the golden century” in the history of the country.
The Orša battle became one of the major European battles of XVI century. All captured cities were released. At the same time the secret alliance of Moscovia and European countries, directed against The Grand Duchy of Lithuania, started to fall apart.
Belarusian cities of that time resembled European cities with their appearance and way of life. The places to the East from Belarus were still ruled with the feudal system and had no idea of the Magdeburg right. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania became the eastern outpost of the Renaissance.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth became the confederation of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which didn’t stop the existence of both states.
The Third Statute of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania became the most advanced and perfect collection of laws in Europe of that time. The document established the idea of religion tolerance and protected the rights of all residents regardless of their religion.
The war of 1654 received the title of “bloody deluge”. In general, the whole century consisted of continuous wars.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth experienced the last lift during the reign of Jan Sabieski.
The weakened Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth resembled the appurtenant of the Russian Empire. Peter I downsized the army of the state and it shouldn’t exceed 24 thousands. At the same time armies of the nearest neighbors were ten times bigger.
Stanisłaŭ II Aŭhust Paniatoŭski, the King of Poland and Grand Duche of Lithuania, renounced the throne in favor of Catherine II in 1795. The federal state of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and both countries in its composition—the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania—disappeared.
Belarus became a cannon fodder and the buffer area for military issues. The war with Napoleon took the life of each fourth inhabitant of the country.
The Magdeburg right of Belarusian cities was cancelled and former emblems were weeded away.
The Uprising of 1863 became a rare example in the history of XIX century, when a small group of armed people rebelled against the empire fighting for personal and national dignity.
Under the conditions of the de facto ban on publishing in Belarusian language until 1905, uncensored publications in other countries took an important place in appearing of new Belarusian literature.
The Bolsheviks’ Government came to power.
BPR didn’t find much support among people. The Republic was established in extremely inappropriate conditions during the occupation regime which was directed against the national aspirations and authorities of the declared states.
The rise of the national liberation movement in Belarus, the proclamation of the BPR and the activities of its governing bodies have pushed the Bolsheviks’ government to the formal recognition of the right of the Belarusian people to self-determination and national statehood.
The Soviet regime established in the eastern territory of Belarus in the summer of 1920. On July 31, 1920 the Declaration of Independence of the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia was announced at the congress of the Communist Party of Lithuania and Belarus, Soviet and Trade union organizations of Minsk and the Minsk province.
At that time the version of that in Belarus there are anti-Soviet underground, National fascist organization headed by the leaders of the republic was set in motion. As a result, 99 of 101 first secretaries of district committees of the Communist Party were repressed.
During the war 209 cities and towns, and 9,200 villages were burnt and destroyed. Every third was killed.
Khrushchev thaw. The democratization of public life, many victims of repression were rehabilitated.
Since the mid-1980s the reforming the political system, democratization of society and nation-building started. Multi-party system began its formation.
At the end of the XX century Belarus became an independent state. Over the past decades Belarusian people have not only preserved and restored the heritage of ancestors and the history of the country, but also put a lot of effort into its development.